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Net income for the company during a specific period.

Earnings per Share (EPS)

EPS is a company's profit divided by its number of outstanding shares. If a company earned $2 million in one year had 2 million shares of stock outstanding, its EPS would be $1 per share. Companies often use a weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting term.

Earnings Yield

The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest debt, to the current share price. The total twelve months earnings divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is shown in percentage.


Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. This measure is sometimes referred to as Net Operating Income (NOI).


The Securities & Exchange Commission uses Electronic Data Gathering and Retrieval to transmit company documents such as 10-Ks, 10-Qs, quarterly reports, and other SEC filings, to investors.

Effective Annual Interest Rate

The term refers to an annual measure of the time value of money fully reflecting the effects of compounding.

Effective Annual Yield

Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques.


The process by which the economic benefits of ownership of a tangible asset, such as real estate, are divided among numerous investors and represented in the form of publicly-traded securities.


(1) A stock or any other security representing an ownership interest; (2) On a company's balance sheet, the amount of the funds contributed by the owners (the stockholders) plus the retained earnings (or losses). Also referred to as "shareholders' equity"; (3) In the context of real estate, it is the amount the owner would receive after selling a property and paying off the mortgage.

Equity Market Cap

The market value of all outstanding common stock of a company.

Equity REIT

A REIT which owns, or has an "equity interest" in, revenue generating real estate (rather than making loans secured by real estate collateral).


Charged to an expense account, fully reducing reported profit of that year, as is appropriate for expenditures for items with useful lives under one year.

Financial Leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. Financial leverage is measured by the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.


The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority – formerly the NASD and NYSE Member Regulation – is the largest non-governmental regulator for all securities firms doing business in the United States.

Fixed Asset

Long-lived property owned by a firm used in the production of its income. Tangible fixed assets include real estate, plant, and equipment. Intangible fixed assets include patents, trademarks, and customer recognition.

Fixed Cost

A cost fixed in total for a given period of time and for given production levels.

Fixed-Rate Loan

A loan on which the rate paid by the borrower is fixed for the life of the loan.

Form 3

A document filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) by an insider affiliated with a public company's operation.

Form 4

A document filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) whenever there is a material change in the holdings of company insiders.

Form 5

This term refers to a document filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) by an insider who conducted an insider transaction during the year which were not previously reported via a Form 4 submission.

Funds Available for Distribution (FAD)

A term used to measure the funds a REIT has available to make distributions.

Funds from Operations (FFO)

The most commonly accepted and reported measure of REIT operating performance. It is a REIT's net income, excluding gains or losses from sales of property, and adding back real estate depreciation.

General Partner

A partner who has unlimited liability for the obligations of the partnership.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

A technical accounting term encompassing the conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.

Gross Leasable Area (GLA)

The total floor space of a building designed for the occupancy of tenants. GLA does not include common areas.

Holding Period

Length of time an individual holds a security.

Holding Period Return

The rate of return over a given period.

Hybrid REIT

This term refers to a REIT combining the investment strategies of both equity REITs and mortgage REITs.

Implied Equity Market CAP

The market value of all outstanding common stock of a company plus the value of all UPREIT partnership units as if they were converted into the REIT's stock.

Income Statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the difference between revenues and expenses) of an entity over some period of time.

Individual Retirement Account (IRA)

Created in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), an IRA is an investing tool used by individuals to earn and earmark funds for retirement savings. There are several types of IRAs: Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, SIMPLE IRAs and SEP IRAs.

Intangible Asset

A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Goodwill, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, and trademarks are examples of intangible assets.


The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption.

Interest Coverage Ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.


The owner of a financial asset.

Investor Relations

The process by which a company communicates with its investors.